Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/rokcommon/RokCommon/Service/ContainerImpl.php on line 454 Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/rokcommon/RokCommon/Service/ContainerImpl.php on line 454 Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/rokcommon/RokCommon/Service/ContainerImpl.php on line 454 Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/rokcommon/RokCommon/Service/ContainerImpl.php on line 454 Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/rokcommon/RokCommon/Service/ContainerImpl.php on line 454 Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/rokcommon/RokCommon/Service/ContainerImpl.php on line 454 Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/rokcommon/RokCommon/Service/ContainerImpl.php on line 454 Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/rokcommon/RokCommon/Service/ContainerImpl.php on line 454 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/plugins/system/rokextender/rokextender.php on line 32 Deprecated: iconv_set_encoding(): Use of iconv.internal_encoding is deprecated in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/joomla/string/string.php on line 28 Deprecated: iconv_set_encoding(): Use of iconv.input_encoding is deprecated in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/joomla/string/string.php on line 29 Deprecated: iconv_set_encoding(): Use of iconv.output_encoding is deprecated in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/joomla/string/string.php on line 30 Deprecated: Non-static method RokCandyHelper::getMacros() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/plugins/system/rokcandy/rokcandy.php on line 28 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/administrator/components/com_rokcandy/helpers/rokcandy.php on line 13 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/administrator/components/com_rokcandy/helpers/rokcandy.php on line 14 Strict Standards: call_user_func_array() expects parameter 1 to be a valid callback, non-static method RokCandyHelper::getUserMacros() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/joomla/cache/controller/callback.php on line 159 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/administrator/components/com_rokcandy/helpers/rokcandy.php on line 24 Deprecated: Non-static method RokCandyHelper::getTemplateOverrides() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/administrator/components/com_rokcandy/helpers/rokcandy.php on line 18 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/administrator/components/com_rokcandy/helpers/rokcandy.php on line 41 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/administrator/components/com_rokcandy/helpers/rokcandy.php on line 42 Strict Standards: call_user_func_array() expects parameter 1 to be a valid callback, non-static method RokCandyHelper::readIniFile() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/joomla/cache/controller/callback.php on line 159 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/plugins/system/rokbox/rokbox.php on line 51 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/plugins/system/rokcandy/rokcandy.php on line 67 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/plugins/system/rokcandy/rokcandy.php on line 37 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 421 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Declaration of LikeWhereClause::testRow() should be compatible with WhereClause::testRow($row, $rowSchema = NULL) in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantryflatfile.class.php on line 662 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 188 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 189 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 246 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 247 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 205 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 489 Deprecated: Non-static method JSite::getMenu() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 1085 Deprecated: Non-static method JApplication::getMenu() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/includes/application.php on line 539 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 1085 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Declaration of GantryParamProcessorAlias::postLoad() should be compatible with GantryParamProcessor::postLoad(&$gantry, $param_name, &$param_element, &$data, $value) in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/params/processors/alias.php on line 17 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 489 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 489 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 489 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/utilities/gantrycache.class.php on line 70 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 321 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 324 Deprecated: Non-static method JSite::getMenu() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 337 Deprecated: Non-static method JApplication::getMenu() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/includes/application.php on line 539 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 337 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Deprecated: Non-static method GantrySessionParamOverride::populate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 1239 Deprecated: Non-static method GantryCookieParamOverride::populate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 1240 Deprecated: Non-static method GantryMenuItemParamOverride::populate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 1243 Deprecated: Non-static method GantryMenuItemParamOverride::_populateSingleItem() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/params/overrides/gantrymenuitemparamoverride.class.php on line 36 Deprecated: Non-static method JSite::getMenu() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/params/overrides/gantrymenuitemparamoverride.class.php on line 54 Deprecated: Non-static method JApplication::getMenu() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/includes/application.php on line 539 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/params/overrides/gantrymenuitemparamoverride.class.php on line 54 Deprecated: Non-static method GantryUrlParamOverride::populate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 1246 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 1053 Deprecated: Non-static method JSite::getMenu() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/features/inactive.php on line 31 Deprecated: Non-static method JApplication::getMenu() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/includes/application.php on line 539 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/features/inactive.php on line 31 Deprecated: Non-static method JSite::getMenu() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/features/pagesuffix.php on line 38 Deprecated: Non-static method JApplication::getMenu() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/includes/application.php on line 539 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/features/pagesuffix.php on line 38 Что такое диффузия
Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 489
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Июль 31 2012

Диффузия

Диффузия – это процесс, при котором происходит взаимное проникновение молекул одного вещества,  между молекулами другого вещества, которое приводит к самопроизвольному выравниванию концентраций этих веществ по всему объему.   Например, если в воду капнуть краску или чернила, то через некоторый промежуток времени, вода равномерно окрасится.

Чаще всего, под диффузией понимаются процессы, которые сопровождаются переносом некой материи, но иногда диффузными могут назвать и другие процессы переноса, например, вязкое трение, теплопроводность и тому подобное.

Чтобы в общих чертах понять, что такое диффузия, достаточно общих сведений, которые мы сейчас обсудим.

Что такое диффузия

Абсолютно все виды диффузии подчинены одинаковым законам. Скорость диффузии пропорциональна разности концентрации, площади поперечного сечения образца, в случае небольших величин температуре или заряду, особенности (параметру), которая характеризует конкретное вещество\материал. Если речь идет о потоке электрических зарядов, то параметром (особенностью), является  электропроводность. А если говорить о тепловой диффузии, то параметром (особенностью), будет являться теплопроводность.

Диффузия

Диффузия представляет собой процесс, происходящий на молекулярном уровне, который определяется хаотично-случайным характером движения молекул (отдельных). В связи с этим, скорость диффузии пропорциональна еще и с средней скорости движения молекул. Например, в газах, средняя скорость небольших молекул – большая. Процессы (диффузионные), которые происходят в твердых телах, при высоких температурах, могут найти практическое применение. К примеру, в электронно-лучевых трубках (а именно определенных их видов), применяется металлический торий, который был продиффундирован через вольфрам (металлический) при температуре  2000 градусов по Цельсию.

Если случается так: масса одной молекулы в смеси газов в четыре раза больше другой, то такая молекула будет иметь скорость передвижения в два раза медленнее, чем скорость ее движе ния в чистом газе. Следовательно, скорость диффузии такой молекулы будет меньше. 

Немецкий физик Адольф Фик, дал количественное описание процессов диффузии.

Наиболее изученным является диффузия в кристалле (то есть перенос атомов за счет теплового хаотичного движения), диффузия в плазме (то есть произвольное направленное движение частиц плазмы), осмос (то есть процесс односторонней диффузии), поверхностная диффузия (то есть процесс, который связан с перемещением частиц, происходящий на поверхности тела, прошедшего конденсацию, в границах первого слоя атомов или поверх этого слоя), вращательная диффузия, солевые пальцы (то есть частный случай двойной диффузии).

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