Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/rokcommon/RokCommon/Service/ContainerImpl.php on line 454 Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/rokcommon/RokCommon/Service/ContainerImpl.php on line 454 Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/rokcommon/RokCommon/Service/ContainerImpl.php on line 454 Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/rokcommon/RokCommon/Service/ContainerImpl.php on line 454 Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/rokcommon/RokCommon/Service/ContainerImpl.php on line 454 Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/rokcommon/RokCommon/Service/ContainerImpl.php on line 454 Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/rokcommon/RokCommon/Service/ContainerImpl.php on line 454 Deprecated: preg_replace(): The /e modifier is deprecated, use preg_replace_callback instead in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/rokcommon/RokCommon/Service/ContainerImpl.php on line 454 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/plugins/system/rokextender/rokextender.php on line 32 Deprecated: iconv_set_encoding(): Use of iconv.internal_encoding is deprecated in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/joomla/string/string.php on line 28 Deprecated: iconv_set_encoding(): Use of iconv.input_encoding is deprecated in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/joomla/string/string.php on line 29 Deprecated: iconv_set_encoding(): Use of iconv.output_encoding is deprecated in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/joomla/string/string.php on line 30 Deprecated: Non-static method RokCandyHelper::getMacros() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/plugins/system/rokcandy/rokcandy.php on line 28 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/administrator/components/com_rokcandy/helpers/rokcandy.php on line 13 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/administrator/components/com_rokcandy/helpers/rokcandy.php on line 14 Strict Standards: call_user_func_array() expects parameter 1 to be a valid callback, non-static method RokCandyHelper::getUserMacros() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/joomla/cache/controller/callback.php on line 159 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/administrator/components/com_rokcandy/helpers/rokcandy.php on line 24 Deprecated: Non-static method RokCandyHelper::getTemplateOverrides() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/administrator/components/com_rokcandy/helpers/rokcandy.php on line 18 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/administrator/components/com_rokcandy/helpers/rokcandy.php on line 41 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/administrator/components/com_rokcandy/helpers/rokcandy.php on line 42 Strict Standards: call_user_func_array() expects parameter 1 to be a valid callback, non-static method RokCandyHelper::readIniFile() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/joomla/cache/controller/callback.php on line 159 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/plugins/system/rokbox/rokbox.php on line 51 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/plugins/system/rokcandy/rokcandy.php on line 67 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/plugins/system/rokcandy/rokcandy.php on line 37 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 421 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Declaration of LikeWhereClause::testRow() should be compatible with WhereClause::testRow($row, $rowSchema = NULL) in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantryflatfile.class.php on line 662 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 188 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 189 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 246 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 247 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 205 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 489 Deprecated: Non-static method JSite::getMenu() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 1085 Deprecated: Non-static method JApplication::getMenu() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/includes/application.php on line 539 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 1085 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Declaration of GantryParamProcessorAlias::postLoad() should be compatible with GantryParamProcessor::postLoad(&$gantry, $param_name, &$param_element, &$data, $value) in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/params/processors/alias.php on line 17 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 489 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 489 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 489 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/utilities/gantrycache.class.php on line 70 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 321 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 324 Deprecated: Non-static method JSite::getMenu() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 337 Deprecated: Non-static method JApplication::getMenu() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/includes/application.php on line 539 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 337 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Strict Standards: Non-static method GantryLoader::import() should not be called statically in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/gantry.php on line 40 Deprecated: Non-static method GantrySessionParamOverride::populate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 1239 Deprecated: Non-static method GantryCookieParamOverride::populate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 1240 Deprecated: Non-static method GantryMenuItemParamOverride::populate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 1243 Deprecated: Non-static method GantryMenuItemParamOverride::_populateSingleItem() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/params/overrides/gantrymenuitemparamoverride.class.php on line 36 Deprecated: Non-static method JSite::getMenu() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/params/overrides/gantrymenuitemparamoverride.class.php on line 54 Deprecated: Non-static method JApplication::getMenu() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/includes/application.php on line 539 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/params/overrides/gantrymenuitemparamoverride.class.php on line 54 Deprecated: Non-static method GantryUrlParamOverride::populate() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 1246 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 1053 Deprecated: Non-static method JSite::getMenu() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/features/inactive.php on line 31 Deprecated: Non-static method JApplication::getMenu() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/includes/application.php on line 539 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/features/inactive.php on line 31 Deprecated: Non-static method JSite::getMenu() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/features/pagesuffix.php on line 38 Deprecated: Non-static method JApplication::getMenu() should not be called statically, assuming $this from incompatible context in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/includes/application.php on line 539 Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/features/pagesuffix.php on line 38 Что такое цитология
Strict Standards: Only variables should be assigned by reference in /home/np12524/domains/otve4aem.ru/public_html/libraries/gantry/core/gantry.class.php on line 489
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Авг 04 2012

цитологияНаверно, каждый из нас еще со школы знает о том, что такое цитология. Но в школе мы с Вами изучали общие определение и, возможно, вкратце вдавались в историю. Сейчас, я предлагаю Вам более подробно узнать о том, что такое цитология, о ее истории. 

Цитология  - это биологический раздел, занимающийся изучением живых клеток, их органелл, их строение, их функционирование, размножение клеток, старение и смерть клеток.

Могут использоваться термины, например,  биология клетки и  клеточная биология.

Что такое цитология

Термин «клетка», впервые употреблён в 1665 году Робертом Гуком.  Употреблен в исследовании строения пробки, при помощи увеличительных линз.  Антони ван Левенгук, в 1674 году, определил, что вещество, которое находится внутри клетки, организовано определенным образом. Он был первым, кто увидел\обнаружил клеточные ядра. И все… исследования и возможности исследования, возобновились более чем через сто лет.

В тысячу восемьсот тридцатых, появились усовершенствованные микроскопы - изучение клетки ускорилось. В 1838-1839-х годах, анатом Теодор Шванн и Маттиас Шлейден почти в одно и то же время, выдвинули теории о строении клеточного организма. Теодор Шванн предложил термин, который назывался «Клеточная теория», он представил этот термин научному сообществу.

Возникновение раздела биологии - Цитология, тесно связано с клеточной теорией, а точнее, ее созданием. Клеточная теория – самое широкое, самое фундаментальное биологическое обобщение. По клеточной теории, всё – растения и животные, состоят из начальных\исходных единиц – клеток. А клетка обладает свойствами всего живого.

Цитология

Важнейшее дополнение в клеточную теорию ввел знаменитый немецкий натуралист -   Рудольф Вирхов. Он дополнил, что каждая клетка начинает свое существование, то есть образуется, благодаря результату деления другой клетки. В 1870-х годах, были открыты мейоз и митоз, то есть два способа деления клетки эукариот. Всего лишь через десять лет ( по сравнению с более ранними исследованиями, десять лет были очень быстрым сроком), удалось установить, важные для генетики, особенности деления мейоза и митоза. Перед происхождением митоза, хромосомы удваиваются и равномерно разделяются между дочерними клетками, что приводит к сохранению в дочерних клетках бывшее число хромосом. Перед происхождением мейоза, число хромосом аналогично удваивается, но в первом делении (то есть редукционном), расходятся двухроматидные хромосомы (к полюсам клетки), в результате чего, образуются клетки с гаплоидным набором, уровень хромосом  в таких клетках в два раза меньше, чем имеет материнская клетка.  Установлено, что кариотип (форма, число, размеры хромосом) - во всех соматических клетках (животного имеющегося вида) – одинаково, а в гаметах, число хромосом в два раза меньше. Благодаря таким цитологическим открытиям, появилась хромосомная теория наследственности, в основу которой и легли эти открытия.

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